The Brent Goose belongs to the arctic circle breeding geese species and has a circumpolar distribution, breeding in tundra and polar deserts. Its return to the breeding areas correlates with the snow melt in the arctic circle. Three acknowledged subspecies are knwon.
The subspecies are:
All in all there are seven flyaway populations knwon. The nominate dak-bellied "bernicla" breed in the high-arctic Siberia and migrate to via the Baltic Sea to wintering areas along the Atlantic and Northsea Coast from Denmark down to France, also wintering in the southeast of England. The light-bellied "hrota" which originates from the East Atlantic and breed in Northeast Greenland, Svalbard and Franz-Joseph-Land winter in Denmark, the northeast of England, the east of Scotland and also - in severe Winters - in the coastal areas of the Netherlands (in the Wadden Sea area). The "hrota" from the east Canadian and northwestern Greenland high-arctic circle fly away via Iceland to winter in Ireland, the west of Scotland, Wales, the southwest of England, Channel Islands and Normandy
The "nigricans" Brent Goose breeds on the East Siberian shoreline, on the New Siberian Islands and on Wrangel Island. Its flyaways lead them along the Siberian shoreline to the North American Pacific coast and southwards down to California, along the river Lena southwards to East Asia.
Voice: A soft, throaty "rronk" or "rruk", also various lesser conversational notes. Flock makes distinctive growling noise.
Habitat: maritime outside breeding season, frequenting coasts and estuaries where Zostera weeds abounds. Breeds sociably on high rocky tundra and islets off the arctic coast.
Bezzel, Einhard, Kompendium der Vögel Mitteleuropas, Non-Passeriformes, Band 1, Aula Verlag Wiesbaden, 1985
Bruun/Singer/König, Der Kosmos Vogelführer, Franck'sche Verlagshandlung Stuttgart, 5. Auflage 1982
Uspenski, S.M. Dr. habil, Die Wildgänse Nordeurasiens, Die Neue Brehm Bücherei, Band 352, A. Ziemsen Verlag Wittenberg Lutherstadt, 1965