The Common Gull is a medium-sized white-headed gull. It belogns to the Three-age group, meaning it moults into adult plumage after the third winter. This gull is distributed across the entire north Eurasian zone and is much more common than would think.
The number of breeding pairs in central Europe is estimated at c. 28,000-35,000 breeding pairs, whereas the European breeding pairs are estimated at c. 590,000-1,500,000 pairs making it a common gull.
We can see and observe the Common Gull actually everywhere in central Europe and alongside shorelines. At first sight, this gull can be confused with the much larger Herring Gull. So be careful and look out for the shape of the bill which must be slender and pointed, without red spot.
Species: Black-headed Gull
Scientific Name: Larus canus
Name in German: Sturmmöwe
Name in Czech: Racek bouřní
Name in Slovak: Čajka sivá
Name in Hungarian: Viharsirály
Name in Croat: Burni Galeb
Name in French: Goéland cendré
Name in Spanish: Gaviota Cana
Name in Portuguese: Gaivota-parda
Name in Dutch: Stormmeeuw
Name in Italian: Gavina eurasiatica
Name in Iceland: Stormmáfur
Name in Faroer: Gneggjus, skatumási, Skatumási/válkur
Name in Finnish: Kalalokki
Name in Danish: Stormmåge
Name in Swedish: Fiskmås
Name in Polish: Mewa pospolita
Name in Russian: Сизая чайка
Name in Hebrew: שחף אפרורי
Name in Arabic: النورس الشائع, النورس الشائع جنة, النورس العادي
Name in Greek: Θυελλόγλαρος
Name in Turkey: Dalgıç, Küçük gümüş martı, küçük gümüş marty
Name in Kazahk: Кєк шағала
Name in Mongol: Үүлэн цахлай
Name in Japanese: kamome
Name in Korean: 갈매기
Distribution: Distributed across the entire north Eurasian region. In central Europe mainly distributed on the shores of the North Sea and Baltics
Movements: Migratory, partly sedentary in Europe.
Habitat: Breeds on dry soil, mainly on islands, headlands, swamps, often near cultivations; mainly concentrated alongside shorelines in west and central Europe.
Behaviour: Mainly diurnal, feeding partly during twilight; partly gregarious.
Field Characteristics: Three-age groups. Larger than Black-headed Gull. It looks similar to the much larger Herring Gull, though the colour of the plumage is much paler. In case of size comparison being impossible, just look at the bill. The bill is slender and pointed, in adult plumage without red spot or ring towards the tip of the bill. Dark bead eyes.
Size: 40-46 cm
♂: 325-552 g
♀: 290-480 g
Wingspan: 110-130 cm
♂: 34.2-38.0 cm
♀: 32.1-35.7 cm
Voice: Higher-pitched calls than Herring Gull.
Maturity: between 2-4 year.
Mating Season: monogamous breeding pair, high loyalty to breeding area and mainly to former partner.
Clutches per breeding season1 clutch
Breeding: not before last decade in April .
Nest: Mainly ground nest, also slightly elevated, also in trees.
Clutch: (1-2) 3 (rarely -4) eggs
Eggs: creme-coloured long-oval egg with speckles and stains.
Length: 48.2-67.4 mm
Width: 34.7-49.0 mm
Ø: 57.2x41.0 mm (n=1374)
Egg weight: 37.0-64.0 g; Ø 51.9 (n=814)
shell weight: 2.13-4.06 g; Ø 3.12 g (n=200)
Recurrent Clutch: possibly when clutch is lost during early days; up to two recurrent clutches are possible.
Laying interval: 47 hours on average for two eggs, 3 egg 77-81 hours.
Begin of incubating: clutch of 2 – 24 hours after laying second egg, clutch of 3 – between laying second and third egg; larger clutches 1-2 days after laying third egg.
Hatching: usually 3 days between first crack in shell until chicken has fully hatched, also 4-6 days are possible; second egg hatches usually 4 hours after first, third egg 17 hours after second egg.
Incubation: 23-28 days; both parents share the task of incubating.
Fledging: 4 days after hedging juveniles leave the vicinity of the nest but are fed at the nest. Fledging after 28-33 days.
Dependency: Fully independent only a few days after fledging.
Food: Earth worms, insects, fish, small rodents, vegetarian, fish waste.
Longevity: The oldest known ringed bird of a Common Gull reached an age of >31 years.
Mortality: c. 54 % during first year, c. 25% in second year, from third year c. 26%.
Threats: Direct persecution, collection of eggs, hunting, poisoning. Insufficient food during breeding season. Loss of breeding areas.
Bauer, Hans-Günther, Bezzel, Einhard et. al. (HG), Kompendium der Vögel Mitteleuropas, Band 1+2, Sonderausgabe 2012, Aula Verlag, Wiebelsheim
Bauer, Hans-Günther, Bezzel, Einhard et. al. (HG), Kompendium der Vögel Mitteleuropas, Band 3, Literatur und Anhang, Aula Verlag Wiebelsheim, 2. vollständig überarbeitete Auflage 1993
Bezzel, Einhard, Kompendium der Vögel Mitteleuropas, Non-Passeriformes, Band 1, AULA-Verlag Wiesbaden, 1985
Bruun/Singer/König/Der Kosmos Vogelführer, Franck'sche Verlagshandlung Stuttgart, 5. Auflage 1982
Glutz von Blotzheim, Urs et. al (HG), Handbuch der Vögel Mitteleuropas, Band 8/1, Charadriiformes (3. Teil), Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Wiesbaden, 1982
Svenson, Lars et. al, Der Kosmos Vogelführer, Franck-Kosmos Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, Stuttgart, 2. Auflage 2011
Clutch of Common Gull - Source: by Lämpel - own works, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=19416507