The Lanner Falcon is a medium-large to large falcon. It is mainly distributed in the Palearctic and Afrotropical region. During winter and passage periods it mainly appears in southern Europe: Italy, Balkan, the east Mediterranean. It seems to breed around the Black Sea area, Israel, Jordan, Sinai and in parts of the Arabian peninsula.
There are five sub-species / races known, most of them in Africa.
Species: Lanner Falcon
Scientific Name: Falco [rusticolus] biarmicus
Name in German: Lannerfalke
Name in French: Faucon lanier
Name in Dutch: Lannervalk
Name in Spanich: Halcón Borní
Name in Italian: Lanario
Name in Finnish: Keltapäähaukka
Name in Danish: Lannerfalk
Name in Swedish: Slagfalk
Name in Polish: Raróg górski
Name in Russian: Lanner Ланнер
Name in Hebrew: בז צוקים
Name in Afrikaans: Edelvalk
Name in Arabic: صقر الغزال, صقر حر
Name in Sotho: Pekwa
Name in Swahili: Kozi Marumbi
Name in Tswana: Phakwê
Name in Shona: Rukodzi
Name in Tsonga: Rikhozi
Name in Xhosa: Ukhetshe
Name in Zulu: uHeshe
Name in Kwangali: Kakodi
Distribution: Both Palearctic and Afrotropical: South and southeast Europe, Middle East, southwesternmost Asia and Africa (there overlapping with Saker).
In Europa kommt der Lannerfalke in den trockenen Gebieten Südeuropas vor und dort hauptsächlich in Ungarn, auf dem Balkan, Griechenland und auf Sizilien.
Movements: Largely resident, juveniles are migratory.
Wintering: Italian peninsula, Sicily, Balkan, Greece, Turkey, Black Sea area, Iran, Iraq, east Mediterranean; Israel, Jordan, Sinai.
Habitat: open and dry country, habitat ranges from extreme desert to forestine mountains, desert and semi-desert, rocky wadis and canyons in barren uplands, open and lightly wooded savannah and all kind of grassland. .
Behaviour Good gliding abilities, using thermals to soar high. In flight slow wing beat, much slower than Peregrine Falcon. The Lanner cuts ist prey on the ground and also in flight. Lanner tend to hunt in parties.
♂ 44 cm
♀ 49 cm
Tail: 17-20 cm
♂ 500-600 g
♀ 700-900 g
♂: 100 cm
♀: 110 cm
Voice: Silent when away from breeding area. Calls are similar to those of the larger falcons, harsh screams and cackles, often uttered as rhythmic series.
Maturity: Mature from 2nd to 3rd year.
Mating Season: Monogamous breeding pair, though because of ist loyalty to the breeding gound, relationships can last for several years. In southern Europe mating season starts as early as February.
Clutches per breeding season1 clutch
Breeding: In central Europa from mid March to June; over the entire area in Europe and northern Africa February to July; east Africa June to October and December to March; southern Africa May to February peaking between August to November.
Nest: Lanner falcons do not build own nests but use the nests of other large raptors, herons, storks or crows. Nest sits on cliff ledges, rocky outcrops, only rarely on ground. In central Europe nests sit on tall trees, and on cliff ledges and outcrops.
Clutch: (rarely 2-) 3-5 (max. -6) Eier
Eggs: broad oval eggs, yellowish shell with stains in red, black or yellow-brown.
Recurrent Clutch: possible when clutch is lost. New clutch only after c 30 days after loss..
Laying Interval: 2-3 days.
Begin of incubating: after laying the third egg.
Incubation: 36-38 days, it is mostly the ♀ incubating, while being fed by the ♂, which also keeps watch over clutch and ♀..
Hatching: All chicken hatch within a day.
Fleding: Chicken are huddled by ♀ during first days; female feeds the chicken with the food brought by ♂. After the end of week three the ♀ also hunts and feeds the juveniles. Fledging after 42-45 days.
Dependency: After fledging the immatures are being fed and cared for by parents for another 4-6 weeks. After 60 days a parent accompanies the immatures during hunting flights.
Food: Between 68 and 84% of the prey are birds, the rest is small mammals (rodents). In eastern Europe the main prey is the ground squirrel; also bats, insects, locally also reptiles and only rarely amphibians; occasionally also carrion is eaten.
Longenvity: In captivity, the Lanner can reach an age of 17 years.
Mortality: According to studies in Morocco, only 25% of all fledged juveniles reach maturity.
Threats: Threats are mostly down to human activity, which are plundering of nests, taking away eggs and chicken. In Asia young Lanner are mostly taken from nests to train them for falconry.
Bauer, Hans-Günther, Bezzel, Einhard et. al. (HG), Kompendium der Vögel Mitteleuropas, Band 1+2, Sonderausgabe 2012, Aula Verlag, Wiebelsheim
Bauer, Hans-Günther, Bezzel, Einhard et. al. (HG), Kompendium der Vögel Mitteleuropas, Band 3, Literatur und Anhang, Aula Verlag Wiebelsheim, 2. vollständig überarbeitete Auflage 1993
Bezzel, Einhard, Kompendium der Vögel Mitteleuropas, Non-Passeriformes, Band 1, AULA-Verlag Wiesbaden, 1985
Bruun/Singer/König/Der Kosmos Vogelführer, Franck'sche Verlagshandlung Stuttgart, 5. Auflage 1982
Glutz von Blotzheim, Urs et. al (HG), Handbuch der Vögel Mitteleuropas, Band 4, Falconiformes, AULA-Verlag Wiesbaden, 2. durchgesehene Auflage 1989
Mebs, Theodor (†), Schmidt, Daniel, Die Greifvögel Europas, Nordafrikas und Vorderasiens, Franck-Kosmos Verlag Stuttgart, 2. Auflage 2014
Svenson, Lars et. al, Der Kosmos Vogelführer, Franck-Kosmos Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, Stuttgart, 2. Auflage 2011
Eggs of the Lanner Falcon - source: by Roger Culos - Eigenes Werk, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=87939536