Long-billed Vulture - Indian Vulture (Gyps indicus)



The Long-billed Vulture is an Old World Vulture of the Gyps genus. Other names attributed to it are Indian Griffon or Indian Vulture. At sizes between 80-103 cm and wingspans between 222-258 cm this is really a large vulture.


As its name already indicates this bird is a native to the Indian subcontinent, distributed between east Pakistan and from there to the north of Delhi southwards through the Ganges plain and further into the Indus plain, the lower Himalayas, Nepal, Burma, Thailand and the Malaysian peninsula.




long-billed vulture portrait
Long-billed Vulture - Source: Sourabh Bharti/Agency iStock


Distribution and Current Population Status of the Long-billed Vulture


Back in 1963, the German zoologist W. Fischer, described the Long-billed Vulture as a common species in India. Unfortunately this is no longer the case. In the 1990s this species suffered a tremendous crush in population numbers. Together with the other two Gyps species, White-rumped Vulture and Slender-billed Vulture, huge numbers of the Long-billed Vulture died in India and for a long time it remained unclear what really caused that mass dying. After several years of extensive studies on the subject, actually by mere chance the reason was identified in the painkiller diclofenac. This pharmaceutical has been in use in human medicine for a long time and especially been helpful to people suffering from othropaedic ailments. Because of this that pharmaceutical was introduced into veterinary medicine. However, even residual remanats in carcases led to acute multiple organ failure with vultures; what an effect considering that vultures have no trouble consuming any sort of corpse poison whith any problems. 


This lead to a near immediate ban of the substance in veterinary medicine, but it was too late for 97% of the population of the Long-billed Vulture. Exactly 97% was the rate by which the population had crushed. Recent studies found out that the agents Aclofenac, Nimesulide and Ketoprofen, under certain conditions, might deliver a similar effect. What that really means and what the governments are going to do remains to be seen. 


Programmes set up by private Organisations such as Zoological Society of London, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) and the governments of India, Nepal and Pakistan, managed to set up protection areas in India and Nepal for the vultures in order to release vultures into the wild, consumable carcases and carrion can be safely provided to the vultures.


However, because of the low reproduction rates of vultures it might take quite some time before the populations are back to their old strength. It must be said that only 50 % of immature Gyps vultures survive to see the end of their first year and only 8% will live to begin breeding at all.


The Long-billed Vulture has become extinct in many Indian regions and where the birds are still around the status is down to: "critically endangered". There are only 12,000 individuals left of the Long-billed Vulture in India.




Description - Characteristics: Long-billed Vulture – Indian Griffon


Breeding – Clutch – Measurements – Habitat – Diet - Threats



Order: Accipitriformes

Family: Accipitridae

Genus: Gyps

Species: Long-billed Vulture


Scientific Name: Gyps indicus


Names and Synonyms of the Long-billed Vulture


Name in German: Indiengeier

Name in French: Vautour indien

Name in Dutch: Indische Gier

Name in Italian: Grifone indiano

Name in Spanish: Buitre Indio

Name in Finnish: Intiankorppikotka

Name in Danish: Indisk Grib

Name in Swedish: Indiskgam

Name in Polish: Sęp indyjski

Name in Russian: Индийский сип

Name in Nepali: लामो ठू“डे गिद्ध

Name in Malaysian: തവിട്ട്‌ കഴുകൻ

Name in Thai: อีแร้งสีน้ำตาล

Name in Chinese: 印度兀鹜, 印度兀鹫

Name in Chinese (traditional): 長嘴兀鷲


Description of the Long-billed Vulture


Distribution: As the name already indicates, the Indian Vulture or Long-billed Vulture is native from the Indian subcontinent to southeast Asia. Region: southeast Pakistan, Kashmir, much of India, lower Himalaya southwards, lower altitudes of Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, Thailand, Malaysian peninsular, Laos , Cambodia, south Vietnam.


Movements: Sedentary, foraging over large areas, immature birds are likely to wander around nomadically, also seasonal altitudal movements in Nepal.


Habitat: less wooded urban areas, savannah, open plains with crags, semi-desserts, farmland with trees. In low mountain ranges in altitudes of up to 1,500 m, does not appear in urban areas, though might appear near villages. Never inside populated areas, where it is represented by the Egyptian Vulture.


Behaviour: The Long-billed Vulture is a sociable creature and breeds colonial. At carcases they always appear as a group. Although the Long-billed Vulture is a large bird they give way to two other species at the carcas: Lappet-faced Vulture and the White-rumped Vulture. The established pecking order at the carcas is as follows: Lappet-faced Vulture – White-rumped Vulture – Long-billed Vulture. However they do share the carcas peacefully with the Griffon Vulture. Together with other vultures they are also vital in processing human corpses.





Size: 89-103 cm

Tail: 24-31 cm

Weight: 5,500-6,300 g

Wingspan: 222-258 cm

Wing: 575-595 mm; ♂ and ♀ show similar wing length



Breeding: Colonial. In India between Mid November to May


Sexually mature: probably not before 3-4 year.

Mating: Mating starts simultaneously with nest building which happens shortly before breeding.


Clutches per breeding season1 clutch



Nest: Small platform made of leafy sticks, measuring 60-90 cm across and 35-50 cm deep; lined with straw, skin, rags and all sort of rubbish assembled around the nest. Nest sits in tall trees, usually in heights between 7-14 m, often close to villages, also on cliff ledges.


Clutch: 1 egg

Eggs: egg shell greenish white, rarely with red brown staints.


Egg Measurements and Weights

Length x Width: 91.7x69.9 mm

Weight: ≈ ??? g


Recurrent Clutches: probably, but only if clutch is lost in the early days of incubation.


Incubation: ≃ 45-50 days


Fledging: chicken is fed by both parents. Fledging period is not recorded, compared to other Gyps vulture a period of about 120 days is to assume.


Dependency: As is customary wih Gyps vultures, the young Indian Vulture will be dependent on ist parents for feeding and education at least for several weeks. Though, there are no firm data existing.





Food: Dependent on medium and large carcases, carrion.


Longevity: unknown.


Mortality: unknown.


Threats: Extremely endangered species, as is the case with all Indian vultures. The use of the painkiller diclofenac in veterinary medcine wreaked havoc within the population of the Indian Vulture and all other widely distributed vultures in India and by early 2000 most of of the populations had died. In all >97 of the population were killed. Carcases that earlier had been treated with Diclofenac, still had the active ingredient in it and after consumption the vultures died from multiple organ failure. Ingredients we know from human medicine are, most obviously, a total no-go for wild living animals. Considering that vultures can consume and digest carrion and do not die from corpse poison then this is time to realise that painkillers are by no means healthy.






Brown, Leslie, Die Greifvögel, Ihre Biologie und Ökologie, Paul Parey Verlag Hamburg und Berlin, 1979

Ferguson-Lees, James and Christie, David A., Raptors of the World, Houghton Mifflin Company Boston New York, 2001

Ferguson-Lees, James, Christie, David, Raptors of the World, A Field Guide, Christopher Helm London, 2005, reprinted 2019

Fischer, Wolfgang, Die Geier, Die Neue Brehm-Bücherei, A. Ziemsen Verlag Lutherstadt Wittenberg, 1963

Grzimek, Bernhard et al (HG), Grzimeks Tierleben, Band VII, Vögel 1, Kindler Verlag AG Zürich, 1968



External Links




Image Credits


Egg of the Long-billed Vulture - Source: Sourabh Bharti/Agency iStock